Pullulan Where To Buy
Buy empty pullulan vegetarian caps! Capsuline's pullulan capsules are available in sizes 0 and 00, which tend to be the most popular capsule sizes overall. Buy now or request a quote!
pullulan where to buy
Pullulan capsules are Non-GMO, Kosher and Halal certified BSE-free, preservative-free and free of all of the most common food allergens. In addition, no toxic chemicals are involved in harvesting pullulan.
You can safely use them with most dry ingredients, including powders, granules, beads, tablets and herbs. Be aware, however, that because of their high-water content, pullulan capsules should not be used with absorbent powders or liquid ingredients.
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Aureobasidium pullulans is a ubiquitous and generalistic black, yeast-like fungus that can be found in different environments (e.g. soil, water, air and limestone). It is well known as a naturally occurring epiphyte or endophyte of a wide range of plant species (e.g. apple, grape, cucumber, green beans, cabbage) without causing any symptoms of disease. A. pullulans has a high importance in biotechnology for the production of different enzymes, siderophores and pullulan. Furthermore, A. pullulans is used in biological control of plant diseases, especially storage diseases.
Chronic human exposure to A. pullulans via humidifiers or air conditioners can lead to hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) or "humidifier lung". This condition is characterized acutely by dyspnea, cough, fever, chest infiltrates, and acute inflammatory reaction. The condition can also be chronic, and lymphocyte-mediated. The chronic condition is characterized radiographically by reticulonodular infiltrates in the lung, with apical sparing. The strains causing infections in humans were reclassified to A. melanogenum.
A. pullulans is notable for its phenotypic plasticity. Colony morphology may be affected by carbon source, colony age, temperature, light and substrate, with colonies ranging from homogeneous to sectored, yeast-like to filamentous growth, and from small to large. These changes, potentially influenced by epigenetic factors, and the particular developmental sequences that the colonies proceed through may be observed with the naked eye. Besides these morphological plasticity A. pullulans is also adaptable to various stressful conditions: hypersaline, acidic and alkaline, cold, and oligotrophic. Therefore, it is considered to be polyextremotolerant.
The morphology-based taxonomy of the species is complicated by the large morphological variability between strains and even within a single strain. Based on molecular analyses, four varieties of the species A. pullulans were recognised: var. pullulans from substrates with low water activity and the phyllosphere and a variety of other habitats; var. melanogenum from aquatic habitats; var. subglaciale from glacial habitats; and var. namibiae, which was described on the basis of only one strain isolated from dolomitic marble in Namibia. However, when the genome sequences of these varieties became available, the differences between them were considered as too large to be accommodated in a single species. Therefore, the varieties were reclassified as new species: A. pullulans, A. melanogenum, A. subglaciale, and A. namibiae.
The genome of A. pullulans s. str. contains large numbers of genes of gene families that can be linked to the nutritional versatility of the species and its stress tolerance. The genome also contains a homothallic mating-type locus. Further genome sequencing of fifty A. pullulans s. str. strains showed that the population of the species is homogeneous, with high levels of recombination and good dispersal. The species A. pullulans was thus recognised as a true generalist, able to inhabit a wide variety of habitats with no specialization to any of these habitats at the genomic level. Despite the presence in the genome of a putative mating locus, and the observation of high recombination rates, no sexual cycle has yet been reported in this organism.
Due to the relatively recent redefinition of the species, most published work does not yet distinguish between the new species belonging to the previously recognised A. pullulans species complex. It is therefore not clear to what extent this knowledge is valid for A. pullulans s. str. and what should be attributed to the three new species.
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Abstract:A kind of pH-responsive particle was synthesized using modified pullulan polysaccharide. The synthesized particle possessed a series of merits, such as good dispersity, chemical stability and variability of particle size, making it a suitable carrier for enzyme immobilization. Then, Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL), a promising biocatalyst in transesterification reaction, was immobilized on the synthesized particle. The highest catalytic activity and immobilization efficiency were achieved at pH 6.5 because the particle size was obviously enlarged and correspondingly the adsorption surface for BCL was significantly increased. The immobilization enzyme loading was further optimized, and the derivative lipase was applied in chiral resolution. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the immobilized BCL showed a very good performance and significantly shortened the reaction equilibrium time from 30 h of the free lipase to 2 h with a conversion rate of 50.0% and ees at 99.2%. The immobilized lipase also exhibited good operational stability; after being used for 10 cycles, it still retained over 80% of its original activity. Moreover, it could keep more than 80% activity after storage for 20 days at room temperature in a dry environment. In addition, to learn the potential mechanism, the morphology of the particles and the immobilized lipase were both characterized with a scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the enlarged spherical surface of the particle in low pH values probably led to high immobilized efficiency, resulting in the improvement of enantioselectivity activity in chiral resolution.Keywords: immobilization; Burkholderia cepacia lipase; chiral resolution; 1-phenylethanol; pullulan
Pullulan is a film former and binder popular in the production of breath strips, but it also appears as an ingredient in cosmetics and beauty products because of its solubility in water, and adhesive properties. According to Wikipedia, it is produced from the starch of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and CosmeticsCop.com says that it is "Glucan gum produced by black yeast that contains polysaccharides, which makes it a good water-binding agent, thickening agent, and antioxidant," although no other information corroborates any antioxidant properties or benefits.
* A film former Functions: Pullulan is a film former and binder popular in the production of breath strips, but it also appears as an ingredient in cosmetics and beauty products because of its solubility in water, and adhesive properties. According to Wikipedia, it is produced from the starch of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and CosmeticsCop.com says that it is "Glucan gum produced by black yeast that contains polysaccharides, which makes it a good water-binding agent, thickening agent, and antioxidant," although no other information corroborates any antioxidant properties or benefits. Pullulan is seen as an ingredient in cosmetics and beauty products, specifically anti-aging products, because of its ability to provide an instant skin-tightening effect as it adheres to the skin. It is able to quickly form a sheer film that temporarily improves skin's texture and appearance. According to Hayashibara, a Japanese manufacturer of Pullulan, it also provides a smoother texture to formulas, provides foam retention, is anti-static and oil resistant, and water soluble and therefore easily rinsed away. Safety Measures/Side Effects: The CosmeticsDatabase finds Pullulan to be a low hazard ingredient, although a Japanese study in 1985 did find that one or more in vitro tests of Pullulan on non-mammalian cells showed positive mutation results that could potentially lead to cancer. This is unlikely to result in cancer from the use of this ingredient in cosmetics or beauty products, however. No other studies were found that listed negative side effects or adverse reactions from using products or formulas containing Pullulan. 041b061a72